One of the Daevas, Aesma Daeva ("madness") is the demon of lust and anger, wrath and revenge. He
is the personification of violence, a lover of conflict and war. Together with the demon of death, Asto Vidatu, he chases
the souls of the deceased when they rise to heaven. His eternal opponent is Sraosa.
Mazdah ("Lord Wisdom") was the supreme god, he who created the heavens and the Earth, and another son of Zurvan. As leader
of the Heavenly Host, the Amesha Spentas, he battles Ahriman and his followers to rid the world of evil, darkness and deceit.
His symbol is the winged disc.
Persian god of friendship and healing.
Manah is one of the Daevas. He is the personification of sensual desire who was sent by Ahriman to seduce the prophet Zarathustra.
His eternal opponent is Vohu Manah.
name of the seven divine beings who belong to the retinue of the highest god, Ahura Mazda. The Amesha Spentas ("beneficent
immortals"), come directly after him in the hierarchy of gods, and can be compared with archangels. They are gods without
being gods and creatures without being creatures. Together they fight for truth and justice.
of darkness, the eternal destroyer of good, personification and creator of evil, bringer of death and disease. He is also
known as Ahriman, and his name means "fiendish spirit". He is seen as the personification of evil, he leading the dark forces
against the hosts of Spenta Mainyu, the holy spirit, who assisted Ahura Mazda, the wise lord, and final victor of the cosmic
conflict. Ahriman introduced the frost in winter, heat in summer, all manner of diseases and other ills.
found in the water' who gives water to the people. He is a son of the water-god Vouru-kasa. Apam-natat has also some military
aspects and he keeps in check rebellion.
demon who brings drought and aridity. He rides on a black, bald horse. Eventually he was defeated by the god Tistrya.
vahishta ("excellent order") is the personification of the 'best truth' and protects the physical and moral order on earth.
He is the most prominent of the (male) Amesha Spentas and the principal adversary of the world of the demons. The second month
is dedicated to him. His eternal opponents are the archdemon of lie, Drug and the archdemon of apostasy, Indra.
of the Sky.
Persian demon of death whom no human escapes. Together with Aesma Daeva he chases and tries to catch the souls of the deceased
with a noose when they rise to heaven.
Persian god of all fire and of purity, son of Ahura Mazda.
Persian god of prosperity and wealth.
Persian god of the planets and victory. He is the assistant of Sraosa, and helps him when Sraosa rises the soul of the deceased
from the body.
war god of the Iranian Kassites.
Zoroastrian mythology, the yellow demon of lethargy and sloth. He is the evil genius which causes men to oversleep and to
neglect their religious duties.
ancient Persian demon of laziness who tries to prevent people from working. He is one of the Daevas.
ancient Persian mythology they are demons who cause plagues and diseases and who fight every form of religion. They are the
male servants (or followers) of Angra Mainyu, also known as Ahriman. The female servants are called the Drugs. Together they
fight Ahuru Mazda (Ormazd) and his Amesha Spentas.
ancient Persian god of death and demon of deceit and mendacity. He loves destroying life. Dahaka is usually depicted with
three heads, while scorpions and lizards crawl all over his body.
Persian mythology, a demon of enormous power, a ruthless and immoral god of war.
Persian water-demon who continually tries to devour the good things of creation.
ancient Persian myth, Geus-Tasan is the divine creator of cattle.
old-Iranian guardian of cattle. His name means "soul of the ox". He is the servant of Vohu Manah.
deified plant in Persian mythology whose sap, which has anaesthetic qualities, was drunk during sacrifices. This deity ruled
over all medicinal herbs and grants immortality. It is associated with the purification of fire, and believed to have the
power of providing husbands for unmarried women.
Persian sun-god. He belongs to the Yazatas, a group of good spirits.
Persian mythology, the many-horsed sun-god.
old Iranian god of warfare, courage and bravery.
is one of the seven Daevas and the personification of apostasy. His eternal opponent is Asha vahishta.
of the Amesha Spentas, Khshathra vairya ("desirable dominion") is the personification of desirable dominion and is associated
with metal. He is the protector of the poor even though he would rather defend royalty. He enforces peace by using his weapons.
His attributes are the helmet, the shield and the spear. The sixth month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the
ancient Persian god of the moon, one of the Yazatas. He is associated with the cow, which plays an important part in old-Iranian
mythology, and presides over time and tide. He is mentioned as an assistant of Vohu Manah. The seventh day of the month is
dedicated to Mah.
Persian moon god.
old-Iranian god of light, contracts and friendship. He also maintains the cosmic order. Sometimes mentioned as the son of
Ahura Mazda, he assists him in his struggle against the forces of evil, represented by Angra Mainyu.
god of fire and messenger between gods and men in Persian mythology.
Messenger-god in ancient Persia.
spirits of great beauty who guide mortals on their way to the Land of the Blessed. They also battle the Daevas.
The ancient Persian god of , the protecting deity of the south
and of summer.
Persian divine angel of justice and last judgement and the personification of righteousness. Along with Mithra and Sraosa
he judges the souls of the dead. Rashnu guards the Chinvat bridge leading to heaven. He carries the golden scales with which
he weighs the souls at Judgement. Rashnu is one of the Yazatas.
is one of the seven main Daevas. His eternal opponent is Khshathra vairya.
ancient Persian mythology, Spenta Mainyu ("holy spirit") is the god of life and the personification of the good and the light.
He is the twin brother of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman), the god of darkness, with whom he fights an eternal battle.
is a member of the Amesha Spentas. He is the personification of obedience and the messenger of the great god Ahura Mazda.
He also guides the souls of the deceased to find their way to the after live. His symbolic animal is the cock, whose crowing
will call the pious to their religious duties. The seventeenth day of the month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent
is the archdemon Aesma Daeva.
Middle Persian myths the messenger of the gods. He was sent down from heaven to announce to a king that his last hour had
Persian mythology, one of the four leaders of the stars which fight for Ahura Mazda; the guardian star of the west who conquers
ancient Persian god of the wind and one of the Yazatas. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated to him.
Persian god of victory and the personification of aggressive triumph. God of Vrahran Fire, the most sacred of all fires. It
is a combination of 16 fires, most of which belong to those in the metal-working trades. He punishes the evil done by man
and demon. Verethragna appears in many shapes: bear, bird of prey, bull, camel, youth, warrior with a golden sword, wind,
etc. His appearance as a bird and bear were especially popular. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated to him.
Vohu Manah ("good sense") is one of the Amesha Spentas, and the personification of wisdom. He is the protector of the
animal world and is on earth represented by beneficial animals, especially the cow. He takes the souls of the just to Paradise. The eleventh month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Aka Manah.
world ocean in Zoroastrian cosmology; it is also the sea deity. Also, the heavenly lake whose waters supply the world and
in the middle of which grows the Tree of Life.
Zoroastrianism the Yazatas are the deities to whom the hymns in the Zend-Avesta are addressed. They are also the guardians
of the celestial bodies and the messengers of Ahura Mazda. The chief Yazata is Mithra and some of the others include Daena,
Mah, Rashnu, Tistrya, and Zam.
old-Iranian (Avestan) mythology, Zam is the deified earth. He is one of the Yazata.
primordial god in Persian religion, and the god of infinite time and space. Zurvan is the father of the good god Ahura Mazda
and the evil god Angra Mainyu. With children representing the two opposites, Zurvan himself is regarded as a neutral god;
one for whom there is no distinction between good or evil. Zurvan is also the god of destiny, light and darkness.